Evaluación y caracterización de la contaminación acústica en un núcleo urbano de tipo turístico costero (El Portil, Huelva)

  1. Sánchez Sánchez, Rafael
Supervised by:
  1. Juan Carlos Fortes Garrido Director
  2. Juan Pedro Bolívar Raya Director

Defence university: Universidad de Huelva

Fecha de defensa: 09 July 2015

  1. Ricardo Hernández Molina Chair
  2. Felipe Jiménez Blas Secretary
  3. Jordi Romeu Garbi Committee member

Type: Thesis


The main objective of this thesis is the development of an evaluation and characterization of existing noise in a coastal resort town in southern Spain, specifically the town of El Portil (Huelva) and its environment, to serve as a tool to improve the acoustic climate of these cities. The study period has been extended over four years, from September 2010 to October 2014. To achieve this central objective, we have covered a number of specific objectives, among which are: Measure and empirically characterize the existing noise in the urban core. Assessing acoustic quality of the environment of the city, being constituted an important part of the Natural Reserve Laguna del Portil (RNLP). Perform an acoustic map by modelling the entire urban area, and its verification through measures in relevant locations. To achieve the objective set out above, has been divided memory Thesis in seven chapters, which are summarized below: The second chapter of this thesis describes the state of art in relation to the problem of noise in cities, especially coastal. This has been divided into three parts. In the first, an overview of the environmental problems occurring in tourism and coastal cities, and measures being put in place to mitigate them presents. The second part is more concrete the problem of environmental noise of cities in general, and most road traffic primarily responsible for this decline; and as existing abundant research studies that have examined this issue in depth, little if any particular have analysed this problem in this type of tourism and coastal cities. In the third part of the chapter, finally, the central objective and specific objectives of this thesis are indicated. Chapter III begins with an overview of the study area, as well as the listing of different spaces found therein. Next, are presented and detailed the types of instruments and measurement techniques used, the methodology followed, the quality criteria used and calibration processes required by the equipment used. The chapter concludes with the description of the noise modelling tool employed, and prior information required to feed it. In Chapter IV the results of the monitoring, both weekly (with records of five minutes) and 24 hours (with records 1 second), made in different parts of the study area and in different seasons are thoroughly analysed year. Getting itself to different conclusions based on the comparison of these results for the different points for different seasons and different days of the week. Given the environmental characteristics of the Natural Reserve Laguna del Portil, and the level of protection afforded considered to be a protected area, it has been considered according to the RDL 1367/2007, type g acoustic zone) ie: "natural areas requiring special protection against noise pollution". Therefore, this chapter V has analyzed the acoustic situation of this natural area, through measures of spatial sampling conducted in more than 40 points of booking. Also studying their evolution according to distance from the main source of noise and depending on the season. In this chapter VI, we have analyzed the results of both general noise maps of the entire study area, and particular noise maps of the most significant in the same buildings. Finally proceeding to conducting a thorough comparison of them with the results of: the weekly monitorings, monitorings 24 hours and the spatial sampling of the RNLP. This has also allowed a discussion of the reasons that can lead to potential mismatches between experimental results and model. Finally, Chapter VII the main conclusions after the completion of this work are presented: 1. A-5052 is the main source of noise in El Portil, generating over a period of 24 hours in summer, a continuous level equivalent of 5.04 dBA higher than in winter. 2. The existing background levels during night periods in winter, reaching 37 dBA, which corresponds to a period of 5 hours (01: 00-06: 00 h, while in summer reach 40 dBA for a duration of only 1 hour (3:30 to 4:30 h). 3. In the winter nights (01: 00-06: 00 h), there is only one source of noise, corresponding to background noise. Background noise, recreation of tourists and traffic noise from the road: While on summer nights, three sources of noise were identified. 4. Both winter and summer, noisy activities begin at 5:00 AM and runs until 8:00 am, dominated by traffic for the start of the workday. 5. Nature Reserve Laguna de El Portil is located very close to the A-5052, and therefore in summer presents levels above the recommended noise thresholds natural areas. The levels of background noise in this nature reserve has been established by equivalent levels around 30-35 dBA, depending on the season. During the summer, the Laguna de El Portil Natural Reserve presents equivalent levels higher than 14 dBA winter. Also, those lines of research that have been opened and that could be addressed in the short to medium timeframe.