Exiliados económicosla nueva emigración española a América Latina (2008-2016)

Supervised by:
  1. Antonio Luis Hidalgo Capitán Director
  2. Juan Manuel Romero Valiente Director

Defence university: Universidad de Huelva

Fecha de defensa: 22 May 2017

  1. Matthew Frederick Hayes Chair
  2. Octavio Vázquez Aguado Secretary
  3. Oscar Santacreu Committee member

Type: Thesis


The doctoral thesis titled "Economic exiles. The new Spanish emigration to Latin America (2008- 2016) " and prepared as a compendium of publications, is made up of five articles that focus on the study of the phenomenon of Spanish emigration to different Latin American countries from 2008 to 2016. Our study objects are the new emigration of Spaniards, born in Spain and over 18 years old, to Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, Brazil and Argentina between 2008 and 2014 or 2015 (depending on the final date of acceptance of the articles in different journals), These studies being interpreted as representative cases of this phenomenon. We have made an intense bibliographic archival to base these studies, applying the technique of recursive bibliography and filtering the results through the technique of cross references. In addition, we have used a mixed methodology of qualitative and quantitative analysis. For the quantitative analysis, we have used different statistical sources, Spanish, national from different countries and international. While for the qualitative analysis we have used more than half thousand self-administered online interviews and forty recorded semistructured interviews. We have analyzed the quantitative information using the SPSS statistical program and the qualitative information using the Atlas.ti application. We have reached seven general conclusions in this research. The first one is that the sociodemographic profile of the new Spanish emigrant, born in Spain and adult, who has been addressed to a Latin American country since 2008 is that of a male, aged between 25 and 44, coming from Madrid, Andalusia or Catalonia and residing in a large Latin American city; he would not be legally married, would be highly qualified, with university studies, especially postgraduate studies, and would have sought their employment in specific niches of each country. The second conclusion is that the new Spanish emigrants arrive in the Latin American countries expelled by the situation of prolonged economic crisis that Spain has suffered since 2008 and attracted by the employment opportunities and the acquisition of professional experience offered by these countries. Although, in addition, to the existence of a common language and culture, the migratory system between Spain and the Latin American countries based on the emigration of Latin Americans to Spain from the eighties and based on the emigration of Spanish to Latin America during the previous waves, also contributes to this migration. On the other hand, Spanish knowledge about Latin American countries, result of Spanish tourism during the years of economic prosperity and their access to information through new technologies and social networks, have also contributed to such emigration. The third conclusion is that among the initial difficulties that the new Spanish emigrants must face on arrival in Latin America is the obtaining of the visa to work, together with the achievement of financial and social support to finance the trip and the first months of stay. The fourth conclusion is that, in general, the new Spanish emigrants are satisfied with their migration process and especially value the opportunity that these countries offer them to expand their work experience. Even so, they identify a series of problems of their daily life, among which they would find: inefficiency of the bureaucratic system; cultural differences; insecurity; working conditions; quality and cost of health care; and difficulties of access to housing. The fifth conclusion, referring to their future prospects, is that Spanish emigrants preferentially have the return as expectative, against the options of establishing themselves definitively in the country of destination and re-emigrating. And the sixth conclusion is that most of the Spanish emigrants to Latin America that has been going through Spain since 2008 consider the economic crisis as the main cause of their emigration. White the discontent with the different policies in front of this crisis of the Spanish Government makes that a great number of these Spanish emigrants consider themselves as "economic exiles".