Fora baeticala provincialización de los modelos forenses imperiales en la Provincia ulterior baetica

  1. Francisco Marfil Vázquez
Supervised by:
  1. Juan Manuel Campos Carrasco Director
  2. Javier Bermejo Meléndez Director

Defence university: Universidad de Huelva

Fecha de defensa: 12 June 2020

  1. Fernando Martínez López Chair
  2. María del Carmen Fernández Albéndiz Secretary
  3. Miguel Ángel del Arco Blanco Committee member

Type: Thesis


The study of the Betic sets found to date has been a challenge due to the disparity of the data available. Its collection and study has allowed us to obtain valuable data that have allowed us to specify some of the main points that identify our own forensic architecture. On the one hand, the provincial historical, political and economic context has been related to the construction phases and characteristics identified in the different forensic groups. For this, the period of activity in the fora has been divided based on the main constructive moments identified throughout this investigation, that is, an initial phase developed during the republican or late-republican stage, the August period, the consequences of the flavian territorial policies, the impact of the arrival to the imperial throne of Trajan and Hadrian and, finally, the third and fourth centuries as a period of transformation and amortization. On the other hand, the review of the marble materials used in the Betic forums has identified two clear monumentalizing moments, the Julio-Claudian stage and the 2nd century A.D. as a consequence of the reform developed in Italica and the repercussion of the new stylistic and iconographic models of Trajan and Hadrian, being the first the most prolific in regard to the use of marble. With regard to the materials used, it is worth highlighting the majority use of those extracted in provincial quarries -Almadén and Estremoz mainly-, reserving their use for the most prominent pieces - imperial plastic, its epigraphy and the capitals of buildings such as aedes or the basilica-, as well as to carry out the works financed by the local / provincial oligarchy to reflect its social, economic and political position. If you take into account the use that was given to the materials extracted from the imperial quarries, the cities of Colonia Patricia and Italica also stand out. Two cities that are configured as the great centers of worship of the emperor in the most prolific stages of the Provincia reflected in its monumental landscapes. Regarding the adaptation of forensic models to the Betic territory, a clear hierarchy has been identified in which Colonia Patricia as capital stands as a reflection of the Urbs, welcoming materials including specialized labor coming from the metropolis itself. As we move away from administrative capitals, we can see how styling is schematized and simplified, replacing marble materials with more difficult to treat such as terracotta or local stones and limestones. Some materials that will not allow definite finishes and will need a subsequent coating and painting in which to capture the details of the style prevailing at all times. Although there was a language, where samples of indigenous or pre-Roman culture are at least scarce. These seem to be reduced to small nuclei outside the orbit of administrative capitals, where the official language will monopolize any architectural, sculptural and epigraphic manifestation of public environments. Finally, the analysis of the Betic fora and their comparison with the rest of forensic complexes has allowed the definition of several archetypes that were imported directly from the metropolis establishing a close relationship between it and the monumental image of the provincial civic centers. In this way, the so-called imperial forums as well as the evolution of the concept of state itself, evolving from a republican government to a single-person imperial court, going through a transition period or Principality, will be reflected in the evolution of the Hispanic complexes, composition and outstanding elements, being the figure of the emperor and the cult towards his domus the aspect that will monopolize an increasing importance in the provincial forensic phenomenon.