Contribución de fuentes de material particulado atmosférico en zonas industriales complejas

  1. Millán Martínez, María
Dirigida per:
  1. Daniel Alejandro Sánchez-Rodas Navarro Director
  2. Jesús de la Rosa Díaz Director

Universitat de defensa: Universidad de Huelva

Fecha de defensa: 19 de de juliol de 2022


Tipus: Tesi


Air pollution originating from industrial activities is a matter of interest for the scientific community since it can seriously affect to human health and the environment. One of the main pollutants is atmospheric particulate matter (PM), which is comprised of a high variety of chemical compounds and elements, depending basically on its origin sources. In this sense, industrial PM is characterized by its high content in particularly hazardous compounds and metals for the organism. Furthermore, under specific meteorological conditions, industrial emissions can impact at nearby urban areas. For this reason, deepening the chemical characterization and quantification of the industrial contribution to PM. In the present research work, a PM10 source contribution analysis has been developed in complex industrial areas. First of all, the estuary known as La Ria de Huelva, since important industrial estates are located in its surroundings. Even though, the industrial impact over the city of Huelva has been highly studied and characterized, an urban area next to the industries (La Rabida) has also been considered. PM10 concentrations observed during the period 2015-2017 are similar to those observed at urban backgrounds. However, its chemical composition is characterized by high Cu, Zn and As concentrations, particularly at La Rabida. Attending to PM10 source contribution analysis, an industrial source derived mainly from a Cu smelter factory is observed. This source is the major contributor to the high As concentrations registered at Huelva and La Rabida. Furthermore, a second As source related to the handle of polymetallic sulfides in a port area has been identified at La Rabida. By As speciation analysis it has been possible to differentiate between both sources. With the aim of characterizing the main geochemical anomalies at regional level a contribution source analysis has been developed at representative monitoring sites of Andalusia. Likewise, the influence of North African air masses (NAF) over PM10 levels and its chemical composition has been considered. Apart from the increment observed in PM10 concentrations, trace elements from industrial origin (e.g. As, V or Cr) also showed higher concentrations during these events. In spite of the increased contribution of the natural sources (crustal and seasalt) under NAF, it was also observed a 50% gain of the anthropogenic sources (traffic, regional and industrial). Consequently, a poorer air quality is found during these days due to the high PM levels and its content in hazardous elements. This fact should be taken into account by proper authorities in order to reduce anthropogenic emissions as far as possible. Finally, PM10 anthropogenic emissions and their chemical composition at a regional level have also been studied during 2020. Covid-19 pandemic conferred an exceptional situation to evaluate air quality, especially during population confinement months, when just essential services were kept. The results inferred a clear decrease of those related to traffic emissions during the lockdown period. This diminution was corroborated with the sharp drop of NO2 levels since March 2020. Regarding PM10 trace elements from specific industrial emissions, different trends have been observed. At Algeciras Bay industrial area it was not noted a relevant decrease of the emissions during the confinement moths. Nevertheless, in the ceramic region of Bailen and in Huelva (Cu smelter) a reduction of the industrial emissions was observed during the lockdown. Furthermore, an analysis of PM10 trace element concentrations during the whole 2020, has shown the continuation of the geochemical anomalies already observed in previous years.