La acción educativa en el aulaanálisis de las variables que intervienen en la práctica : un estudio integrado

  1. Virginia Morcillo Loro
Supervised by:
  1. Francisco José Pozuelos Estrada Director

Defence university: Universidad de Huelva

Fecha de defensa: 29 January 2016

  1. Jurjo Torres Santomé Chair
  2. Emilia Moreno Sánchez Secretary
  3. Soledad García Gómez Committee member

Type: Thesis


To deepen the concept of classroom supposed to reveal the role that context plays in the teaching-learning process. The classroom is the focus of the school, described as a desirable place in which knowledge is produced. We must say that from its concept are extracted different "lenses" to understand the processes occurring in it, and the characteristics that best define it.The classroom, as a space wherescholastic must be recognized, valued and respected, presume to pay attention to what is taught and how to teach it. At the same time, it must meet the spatial structure and material, the time distribution and the type of relationships maintained. The classroom as a forum for exchange and interaction between all those involved in education (family, students, faculty, associations ...), must propose strategies and actions where all feel members and participants of that scenario, hence, the classroom is more than a physical space. Therefore, when it is defined based on criteria of interaction, social relations, we are paving the way for the construction of a classroom as a space for dialogue, democratic and social. The aim of the thesis is to analyze and understand the variables involved in the educational activities in the classroom, from an interactive and systematic approach, focused in formulating proposals that promote the improvement of the class, through innovative approaches, suitable and adapted to a changing society as well as to the claims that children today claim. The structure of the work is presented following the classic pattern for the educational research corpus. The first part of the doctoral thesis, Theoretical Framework, has played the role of setting up theoretical concepts on which the doctoral thesis is based and also the empirical study (Chapters 1-5). The second part explores the empirical study (Chapters 6-12), where the research about the analysis involved in educational activities, an integrated perspective is presented. In the first chapter, entitled, What is this thing called class? Analysis from the conceptual point of view,it aims to address the semantic and etymological field of the "class" concept. From this frame of reference, we select and point out some meanings that give us many authors over the last few decades. We emphasize the most significant of each characteristics, by providing, in turn, comparisons to guide us toward a conceptual classification linked to several categories: from the classroom as a physical space , as a human group , as a place where students learn to be and to live among others. Finally, and based on the different contributions analyzed, we will indicate what is for us the "classroom". The second chapter, Challenges and Crossroads in the classroom context in today's society, selects and identifies some of the challenges and crossroads, that, in our view, contribute to the discussion of new approaches to adopt in order to transform and improve the action education in the classroom, in today's society. Among the challenges we include,stand out the reevaluation of collaborative work among professionals from the perspective of shared or distributed leadership, the key skills and fundamental knowledge in the XXI century education (curriculum integrated), the impact of ICT in schools, giving a significant character to the role of students and teachers, the characteristics underlying the new communication environments and strategies and tools thatallow to preparepeople able to self-learn in collaboration with others. Moreover, we focus on a new concept of childhood, in the participation of the educational community and, finally, in the diversity in the classroom from the philosophy of the school inclusion (voiced by students). The third chapter refers to the perspective of educational change and its impact in the classroom: where the change does not arrive, where the change is lived and felt. We analyze in this chapter the perspective of educational change and its impact in the classroom. From a general framework, we deepen in the meaning of the grammar of educational change, laying the groundwork to clarify its conceptualization, as well as some important considerations to keep in mind. Under the emerging transformations in a complex society, new answers in educational practice are needed, so we chose to reflect and question the elements favoring another possible and necessary education from the latest research occurred in the educational landscape, presenting some experiences success at national and international level. On the other side of the coin, we catch sight of the static vision of change and educational improvement, deepening the barriers that hinder and hamper the sustainability of innovative experiences. To finally stop at one of the main agents of the change to improve the class, the teachers. Strategies such as Training Centers and Professional Learning Communities are a way and proper way for diagnosis, analysis, reflection, needs assessment and reorientation of professional practices that have a direct impact on the ability of educational change from the own center. In the fourth chapter, describing the elements of a landscapecalled class: "academic structure". We stop at the academic structure as relevant and meaningful for the analysis of educational action item. In it we address two key issues: what to teach? And how to teach? in an interrelated way. First, we consider the revision / study of the curriculum from an integrated perspective. We reject the idea of a disjointed teaching content and away from emerging transformations in society, orally transmitted and presented in silos, betting on the curricular integration around a "democratic perspective". It requires that the curriculum is translated into a text that addresses the complexity of the purposes of education and to develop a holistic action capable of awakening in school processes that are conducive to achieve that purpose. From this idea we present some educational experiences that address the content in innovative ways; among them they are: Starting point should be the knowledge of the scholastic, curriculum globalization, promoting teamwork and cooperative learning, creating spaces for dialogue, including workshops, nooks and interactive groups. Secondly, we respond to the second question, how to teach? or what is the same, we delve into the dynamics of teaching. The review of the literature focuses on studying the teaching-learning activities and, finally, in the formative evaluation. The last chapter that forms the theoretical body, is called How do we organize? Layout of the space and time of the school and the resources planning in the classroom. First, we perform a regulatory-legislative balance that will focus on the importance gained over the history of education settings spaces in schools, and as a cornerstone element in student learning, then we will investigate its relevance for education and semantic- conceptual framework by which to move, not forgetting some recommendations for one special organization integrated in the challenges of education in the XXI century, in the line to get the educational change. Secondly, we address its organization, based on a brief analysis on the curricular materials. We will depart from its definition, we will mark their functions within the teaching-learning process, later we willjustify its importance, ending with some criteria for the use of materials in the classroom. Lastly, we will delve into the issue of school time, a variable present in the lives of people and that somehow encourages us to propose another way of organizing it. After the bibliographical analysis, phase of work which has stressed the variables involved in the dynamics of the classroom, with an exploration of the semantic field as well as on matters pertaining to the concept of educational change, with the analysis of experiences in singular innovation in the national and international scene, which improvement of educational action is a reality, among other issues, we continue to approach this chapter: Genera! Research Design: Integrated Study. In this research it has been pursued to achieve the purposes by the implementation of one study, integrated-combined of the two methodologies, quantitative and qualitative. Obtaining data and information through the combination of the two methodologies has helped to foster the wealth of results. Initially, in this chapter we delve into the reasons and the origin of the research, then, we detail the problems, the purpose and objectives of the study, summarized and organized in a table of categories. At the same time, we stress the methodological option chosen that gives meaning to the integrated study, combining quantitative and qualitative paradigms, in all three studies that comprise it. The first one, the extensive one analyzes the conceptions that various teachers in the province of Huelva have on the different categories that are part of the administered questionnaire. Second, we focus and dive into the everyday classroom of two schools. Through two case studies classroom we know how it works from approaches that can be considered as innovative. Finally, the last study, called biographical, allows us to see, through the voices of two teachers, how they live and feel the classroom, by referring to the narrative of their own life stories. These studies are discussed in parallel in later chapters, we note here only some key theoretical issues that help us to understand each one. Finally, we came across on the principles (triangulation, progressive approach, confidentiality and review by the envolved) accompanying the study and ethical issues for the development of research, from a general and particular for each of the studies focus. The next chapter focuses on the description of Design General of extensive study. For its design, first, we collect the conceptual framework and terminology of the questionnaire. Also, once are considered the most representative features, we specify the population and sample of the extensive study. Third, we delve into the process of developing the questionnaire, linked to this section, although in different sections, we find the essential steps for processing: format and structure of the questionnaire, choice of the questionnaire and describing questions of the questionnaire. Oncethe instrument is built, the following step is the filing and administration of the questionnaire. In this area, we specify the process we follow from development to the collection of the questionnaires in schools. Finally, we conclude with the analysis and processing of information; on par with some final considerations. Chapter General Intensive Design Studio, begins with a conceptual review of case studies within the qualitative research approach, leading, in a comprehensive way, the methodological justification of our study. Second, we describe the process followed in the case study, with the development of each of its phases. Based on input from Bonafé Martinez (1988:46), we determined that the phases of our study were: (a) initial or pre-active phase, which specify the criteria for selection of cases and the role of the researcher, (b) interactive phase in which we describe how you carried out the access to the field and the negotiation process and the conceptual structure of the study and the instruments for collecting information, (c) final stage or postactive, in which we noted how the data analysis and drafting and the final report was made. Finally, the chapter concludes with an epilogue in which the most representative aspects of the study are indicated. Probably the interest in revealing visible aspects regarding educational practice in the classroom, raised the possibility of annexing in our study life stories to know, investigate and analyze different categories of the life experiences of people, facts, events and historical periods, that have assumed an important role in the school, training and personal career of the teachers participating in the study. In this chapter, dedicated to Genera! Subjective Design Studio, we try to approach epidermal way, firstly to matters pertaining to the purely conceptual, an approach to the biographical-narrative research and technical badge as a life history (semantic field, relevant in the field of education through stories of teachers and teachers, among others). Secondly, we present the selection and representation of these in our research, giving space to the theoretical and methodological considerations, marking the fieldwork that took place (from the collection of evidence and biographical data, focusing on the biographical interview as well as other critical issues). Finally, we draw the face of the protagonist to mark the beginning and the prelude to his own life story as a hub to understand their daily practice in the classroom, including the construction of Biograms and detection of critical incidents that illustrate a before and after in the way of being a teacher. The following chapters are devoted to the analysis of the results of the three studies that make up the research. Thus, the ninth chapter describes the results of the extensive study, exploratory and focused to investigate the teachers' conceptions about the variables that are part of the educational action. The tenth chapter describes the second research study consisting of two case studies in pre-primary and primary education teachers that promote alternative and innovative teaching. Finally, the eleventh chapter shows the results of the third study, devoted to the reconstruction of the Life History of the teaching of case 1, as a way to further understand how the educational action through the exploration of personal and professional trajectory of the teacher. Each chapter ends with a series of partial conclusions regarding the analysis and addressed around categories and research purposes. Next, chapter twelve, contains the findings of the investigation, as well as detailing the limits and research perspectives.